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2013年08月16日 20:09:02

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Sales outsourcoing and sales management
Access2sales is one of the leading organizations that offer professional management and help for those who want to expand and grow their business in North America. You don't have to live in North America to expand your business there. Once you've started collaborating with this sales consulting company, you will be given an official North American address and also a receptionist. This will be like your own office, except all the trouble you have to go through to have one. You won't need to spend money on sales management training or paying for the office. Sounds great, right?
Access2sales takes care of your sales planning and of sales forecasting to know where you are heading for, it gives you advice on sales strategies, and it also takes care of the sales management training. Just leave everything to them if you want to be successful. All your business will be taken care of by professional and skillful sales representatives, sales agents and sales executives.
Sales consulting and pipeline management belongs to their area of expertise as well. The services they offer to you are the following: sales outsourcing overview, sales consultancy overview, market evaluation, market entry, and lead generation. The sales outsourcing overview means that all sale activities will be taken care of by the regional sales manager, and by a staff of sales executives and sales representatives. The advantages of this service are especially the low risk and the flexible sales force. The sales consultancy overview will help you make your sales much more effective. The market evaluation will give you a complete market study to see what’s going on in the business world, it gives you sales forecasting and information on other potential businesses, and further more also a lot of information about market shares. The market entry will mainly be establishing your presence in the North American economy, by giving you an address and you own phone line. The lead generation service is for representing your company by organizing events and so on. Now that you know more about the services you can see how professional this group of sales representatives are. Start collaborating now to learn more about sales strategies and sales planning.
I advice you to visit this website, because they have a lot more information there. You can also learn about the prices of the different services, a lot of info about the organization, and some advice for you as well.
If you decide to work with his organization, you won't regret it. They have a staff of professional sales agents and sales representatives, ready to work with you. The company is very reliable, and they have a lot of talent and experience in sales planning and sales management. If you want your business to get on the map, this will be the best way to do it. Remember to visit their website, access2sales.com, to get convinced of their professional skills.
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2013年08月13日 17:32:02

Polo Ralph Lauren, though some providers provide a single service.

You can use a merchant account for Internet processing when you have already have set up the transaction processing and have it installed.
There's nothing better than doing business online with ease for both customers and merchants. One of the most attractive features in an online shop is the mode of payment, most especially through credit cards. Many shoppers prefet credit card payments as they are the most convenient and the safest. Here are the steps to follow in processing credit card transactions online.
An Internet merchant account is a bank account that accepts payments throught debit or credit cards for your business. It is essential for online businesses to have one as it is convenient for both retailers and shoppers. In this steps, you would be able to have your credit cards transactions moved into your checking account. It also involves getting a bank credit application and having funds transferred into your account. Have all the requirements ready for the merchant before proceeding into the next step.
Set up the Internet transaction processing
After getting the merchant account, you would need a tool to perform transactions. Conventionally, you are used to swipe the card physically in a shop, insert card in a zon device or using a software ike ICYverify formail order processing. Internet paymne processing deals with transactions done over an internet connection which means that payments can be done online. Internet transaction services usually allow an API, an HMTL input terminal for manual entry and full online reports of transaction. It's good to note that transaction processing services are separate from acquiring banks, though some providers provide a single service.
Install the transaction processing online
Once you acquire the merchant account at the same time the Internet transaction processing and you are now ready to accept credits and process it online, just simply install the software into your application. Most companies use an API that allows code access to processing. These APIs are in C and require writing a wrapper DLL. The API can come from a clinet server pieces or a pure server piece. It is more challenging to install a client server piece because he client side needs to be configued with secure keys and the server has to match. The pure server pieces usually require no installation and is more flexible in the sense that you can utilize and HTTP mechanisms you desire.
You must also be familiar with the different fees involved in these processes. Always check for customer-provider agreements if there are provisions that doesn't suit you.
How You Can Use a Merchant Account for Internet Processing
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2013年08月12日 17:49:22

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Credit Counseling Service
Credit Counseling Service is a big business these days. With more and more American consumers facing problems with amassing debt, they are turning to professional counselors in large numbers. Credit counseling services range from education about money and credit management to genuine counseling toward debt resolution, where the consumer is set off on a plan of financial action.
The main focus of credit counseling services is to assist the consumer in setting and meeting financial goals. Whether saving for a home, paying off debt, or planning for retirement, it is a personalized service which helps to lay out guidelines. In order to achieve these goals, the consumer works with a counselor either in person or online by making a comprehensive examination of the financial situation. In that initial meeting, things like income versus expenses, reasons for financial issues, and what options are available will be covered. The consumer can also expect to have discussions about lifestyle, resources and ways to decrease or increase expenses. Good credit counseling services do not judge. They are there to help the consumer.
Many will start with an online credit counseling service, and that isn't a bad idea. By filling out forms - which should be obligation free - the consumer can determine what options are available in the state where they live as well as learning what some of the basic requirements can be. Gathering up all of the pertinent data and information is one of the first steps, and an online application will help to start to meet that requirement.
Financial education should be at the core of any credit counseling service. It may be that the consumer can learn enough through classes, reading recommended resources, and learning about consumer debts and laws that they can sort out their own financial situation if it isn't too complicated. Many consumers are often able to head off potential life altering debt with a little knowledge and forethought. For those who are already so deeply in debt that they are seeking guidance, they will find many different types of credit counseling services. It pays to look at what each offers. Many services will push consolidation as an option, while more well-rounded ones will offer not only consolidation but debt management and debt settlement as well. There is no one solution for each and every consumer, and any credit counseling service has to be tailor made in order to work and to make a difference.
Credit counseling services can be as critical to a financial life as doctors are to health life, and they should be chosen with equal research.
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2013年08月08日 20:47:04

longchamp online, it is not a fatal problem. You will need a lintel replacement

One of the most common things that are used in brick construction is a lintel. This is a piece of metal that fits on the top of a window or door frame. It forms a place for the bricks to be laid, and in almost every case, no one will ever see it except the mason who built the wall. In fact, it is certain that you have never heard of this device, much less seen one. Usually this will literally stay in the background of your building, but if there are problems, usually associated with age or the weather, these pieces can begin to rust and corrode. And the physical pull of the weight of the wall can use a lintel like a wedge to create more and more cracks in the wall. You will then have to look into one of the most common masonry procedures; namely lintel replacement. And if this happens to be occurring in a high-rise building, then you will have all the difficulties associated with high-rise repair.
In the case of a high-rise, repair work should only be accomplished by experienced people, especially experienced masons. Lintel replacement is not a procedure that you want to learn on the job. It is best left up to professionals. One mistake and you will allow water to seep into a crack, and this can damage an entire building. The lintel must fit perfectly with the masonry. It is more important when you have high-rise repair work. The height of the building and the difference in temperatures between the seasons will ensure that lintel replacement by an incompetent person will cost you more than you saved by hiring a nonprofessional.
If you do see a crack next a wall or a door in your brick building, it is not a fatal problem. You will need a lintel replacement, and your biggest mistake will be to wait too long to have it done. Water that seeps in, freezes and melts again is the most common cause of cracks, but poorly constructed walls or the settling of the building can cause the same thing. With your high-rise, repair is even more vital. It would be lethally dangerous to have parts of the building fall off.
The money you will save by repairing these before they get out of hand will be huge when you compare it to a much more complex lintel replacement. If you seek out a company that knows how the water will drain from your building, they can avoid getting it back between the bricks. And if you are in need of high-rise repairs, Bruno construction is the place to go. They have experienced staff and skilled masons that can help you with their experience and understanding of all brick structures.
You'll be pleasantly surprised to find that the fees of Bruno next generation construction are competitive with their closest rivals and you will begin saving money from the first day that you contract with this company. They will begin by inspecting the building, they will then give you their assessment on the damage and how they would like to precede. They will ensure that all the repairs to meet or exceed local, state, and Federal requirements. They can do everything from a simple power washing to complete brick restoration, and they more than happy to deal with lintel replacement.
Keeping high-rise repair costs down
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2013年08月06日 14:14:23

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The old style of video hosting is not producing results anymore. Distribution via online streaming video hosts like YouTube, Metacafe or Veoh is still important. However, due to a large volume of submissions in almost every business niche, it is hard to get the necessary exposure to generate traffic to your website. It is absolutely amazing how many online entrepreneurs are spending enormous time to create videos, but do not think further than online directory allocation.
Visitors like to see the videos, especially if the owner or author of the website, presents the message himself. It gives credibility to the site. The increment of a conversion rate for websites with videos is far greater than for those with a content in a simple text format. However, YouTube video embedded on your site will not create a free traffic and will not boost your position in Google. Only the correct video search engine optimization on your site can do it.
The properly submitted video will increase the likelihood to get a first page Google ranking for fifty three times in comparison with a content in a text format. This is based on Forrester Research study. These are significant numbers, which you should definitely take into account, when creating a video.
The main reason for these numbers is that Google and also other search engines mix the types of content in their search results. Almost for every competitive keyword you can find videos presented on the first page in Google. Therefore, the traffic from search results will get your website, if videos will be hosted on your site. If the primary source for video is YouTube, then YouTube is the one, which gets the visitors and not your website. In order to host videos on your site, you need to be sure about the web space with your hosting package. Video hosting requires sufficient bandwidth and with free or cheap hosting plans it might not be available. Formation of a separate video directory on your website is the next step. This is where you will upload all your videos. After that you need to create a title, description and thumbnail for your videos. Once you have this ready, the next step is to create a video site map and submit it to Google. This is essential part, as otherwise search engine spiders are not able to read content on your video.
Free, search engine traffic to your website is like blood for human body. There are almost 30 different source of traffic, but none of them can give you kind of results as first page search engine rankings. Video hosting on your site with smart video marketing via online streaming video hosts can give you more than all other sources together.
How Video Hosting Can Guarantee Success for Your Website
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2013年08月05日 18:54:11

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Make Money Fast With A Successful Online MLM Business Opportunity
Online MLM business opportunities offer potential tp make fast money. But how many people really do?
With traditional network marketing business is you can't recruit family and friends and anyone who would listen to you because, there wasn't that many other ways to build your business.
In addition you would have to do in-house meetings or even rent meeting rooms for recruitment purposes. These were all very time-consuming.
Making money in these ventures became very hard for the average person because of all the travle to motivational meetings where you buy books and tapes as an addiotional cost.
Let's not even get into buying inventory!
Today things have changed for many of these MLM companies. By utilizing the internet everything can be done much more efficiently and effectively.
However there are still challenges for MLMs. Many people are still skeptical about network marketing, and find although it is easier to recruit online there are still many challenges. If people don't make money quickly they're more likely to get out faster today then they were yesterday.
So what's the answer? There have been recent developments in the way MLM business model are designed that lets you build your business by using a one-leg compensation plan.
This plan enables many people- even those with little or no experience- to begin making some money fast. Better yet they can do so without having to spend much money. This is what will help MLMs improve their retention rates.
This one-legged compensation plan works this way: Once you become a paid member (a "distributor") you are paid up-front bonuses for every member you sign up and/or purchases products from you the previous week. You can quickly make back any required initial investment this way.
On top of that, once your group reaches a certain number of members you earn monthly overrides on the company's entire monthly membership revenue (down to "infinity").
What makes this system all work so well is this- you only have to build one leg. The days of trying to duplicate a system through three or more legs is over. With just one leg all new members are plugged in below in that one leg.
What this means to new members is that even without much individual recruiting success you are still being aided by the company as every new member is automatically placed below in that one leg. It's exciting to see your group grow through teamwork!
You receive the monthly overrides based on those placed in your group below you- even if you don't sign up anyone yourself. Obviously if you directly and roll people there are ways there are much more money.
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2013年08月02日 18:45:22

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Everyone who has a website or blog these days is focused on search engine optimization and achieving higher page rank. By achieving higher page rank, websites and blogs attract more visitors and more visitors means more business.
There are many ways to improve page rank on search engines and drive more traffic to a website or blog, but none of them as effective as contextual links. It is a relatively new Internet marketing strategy and most people do not even know what a context link is. People automatically assume a contextual link is similar to a regular link, but it is not. Contextual links are links that are embedded in a fully customized keyword rich article.
Not just any article, but an article that is fully customized to match the theme of a website or blog. Links that are embedded are typically keyword rich words that also match the theme of a website or blog. Once the article and contextual link or links are embedded, the article is submitted to a high-ranking article directory or some other website. The keyword rich article will appear on its own dedicated page and one or two keyword rich contextual links will be embedded.
The main difference between contextual links and back links is that these type of links will never be treated as link spam by any of the search engines. The major benefit of using these links is they are effective and 100% safe to use.
Individuals and businesses that are interested in driving high-quality traffic back to their website should consider purchasing contextual links from a solid contextual link building service. There are many benefits to hiring professionals to handle the project. First, a solid provider of contextual link services knows how to write a keyword rich article that matches the theme of your website or blog. Second, companies that provide this type of service also know where these articles should be submitted for fast results.
The Contextual Link Pros at www.contextual-link-pros.com provide top-notch context link building services. By purchasing links from the pros, individuals and businesses are guaranteed to see the results quickly. The writers at Contextual Link Pros have a team of U.S. based writers who are available to begin working on your project. These professionals are available to write as few or as many articles as you desire.
Each keyword rich article these professionals produce will be fully customized to match the theme of your website and include keyword rich links that will link back to your website or blog. Typically, one link is usually included in the body of the article and another link is included the author box. Once complete, your article will be submitted top-ranking websites and directories.
After submitting your article or articles, Contextual Link Pros goes one step further and begin building links back to articles to increase the page rank of each article written and submitted on your behalf. Individuals and business owners will begin to experience a surge in traffic once their article or articles are submitted to top-ranking websites or article directories.
For more information on how to buy contextual links, visit www.contextual-link-pros.com for further information.
Contextual Links Work at Driving Traffic to Websites and Blog
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2013年08月01日 20:31:54

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"Amoy cute" response "childish" critical
Yesterday, the South Korean writer Amoy cute young girls in the Wangfujing Bookstore book "Duolaimi hair instigate" autograph. Her new book, "frenzy" will be the end of September in the online serial, next year can be published in China. 17, in an interview with reporters, in the face while ago, Jiang Fangzhou the Korean youth literature criticism, Amoy cute responded: "The most important literature is to satisfy the reader's favorite, my novel can have so a large group of readers Yes, there is proof that it is the value of the market value. "

" childish "novels there is reasonable?

Recently, Jiang Fangzhou at her book launch pledged to block Korean alone, she thinks Korean writers openly and "literature" drawn a line, South Korea's youth are so novel selling, because the girl's fantasy novels met. Jiang Fangzhou faced criticism Amoy cute, said: "From the trade deficit between China and South Korea in terms of culture, I can fully understand the idea of ??the Chinese girl writers, but from writing it matter what country you are, the most important is to meet the reader's favorite. "She believes that literature can not be a model of the things that must be varied, this difference is the most important characteristic of literary works.

For Jiang Fangzhou the Korean youth fiction story is simple, similar criticism, she said that there is reasonable, this "naive" novel can have a large group of readers like you, to prove that it is the presence value, market value, not simply to their own standards to judge the quality of work of others.

"Although the ancient times to write the story a lot of people on campus, it is the same material, I will write from a different perspective to their own characteristics."

Yu Hua is a learning model

The book-signing event in Beijing, is China Amoy cute summer trip last stop. 10:30, Wangfujing bookstore in the hall had filled nearly 300 fans Amoy, Amoy in China with Korean fans for four consecutive sound the call in Amoy cute leisurely appearance. She was very surprised there are so many fans came to the scene scouring.

Amoy cute that he liked from primary school to write some fairy tales and poetry of small things, from high school after the family moved to Seoul, very far away, surrounded by no friends, they use writing to pass the time, entertain.

Turning favorite Chinese writer Yu Hua favorite cute Amoy said, reading his "guan." "Yu Hua is in the trend of the times is still rock-solid writer, is my role model and I hope to a certain age, I can also become a society with a certain depth of Yu Hua as a writer and his works very modern, any person read will be touched. "Amoy cute says.

new book about the Canadian experience of studying

Although the tour signings very hard, but every night insisted Amoy cute writing books and upload online. Amoy cute explained that this tentative translation called "frenzy" of the book, still tells the story of a love story: a girl studying piano back to Korea after the failure, a friend of the singer with his brother about the love.

This is a humorous, light comedy, there appeared a lot of songs and music clips. Creation of such a story, with lovely Amoy last year studying in Canada experiences.

Since the days of touring signings, Amoy cute is suffering from a cold and high fever, in an interview with reporters after the completion pitched down in his mother's arms. Although seriously ill, but she still insisted on signing every book, every one to use Chinese Amoy fans say "thank you."

18 May, she also participated in Beijing's new book, "Fa, instigate" Chinese songs cover the activities that song called "Happygirl" songs are lovely Amoy personally lyricist for the book with the theme song, after a month's time on the web collecting Chinese artist, Dai Rao and other singers but also specifically to the ceremony site for cheer.
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2013年07月31日 15:35:48

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Wind blowing again
A rose behind , I 'll dream twice spring. Embrace of the guitar on the road people talk folded position , the number of sisters tears poured on the petals and body temperature , palms clasped together in the moment, who saw the wind is blowing ?
miss is another sleeping homes.
solo surfaced West . Elegance sisters scarf woven into rhyme . The wind blew again , the Phenom little spread and rain in March, the separation of broken strings hung in a good wind chimes, as the entire season so many ants walking around , stepping three eighths shot rhythm, through a drop of dew .
I'm not secretly transported spring beautiful light .
( really , the sisters in a dream about a lot of stories .)
a teenager to be kept in mind is that the wind commitments. It and the autumn harvest fruit equally heavy.
Please do not put half the horizon on my hands.
In the waterfront, sisters Xianzhi already wiped the warm reverberation , and graceful bird blown Heartsongs just two lips . This is the story of two very different roles .
wind blowing again .
sisters along the six strings leisurely away. At that time , a newly sprung rose tightly besieged me.


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2013年07月30日 16:49:53

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When individuals exchange wedding vows, it is important for that couple to realize that it is not a fairy tale ending that concludes with living happily ever after. This is because when two people join together in marriage they bring individual life experiences, different personalities and a variety of other differences. Each of these differences can create potential conflict which in turn can cause marital fighting.
Therefore, based on this reality, it is important to know how to stop marriage fighting. Some of those ways on how to stop marriage fighting can include counseling and communications.
Counseling
One of the best action steps that can be taken in regards to wondering how to stop marriage fighting is by utilizing a counselor and attending counseling sessions. A counselor is an individual who has been trained to facilitate the repair of relationships, mediate differences and help individuals to see the other side of the coin. Often these counselors are highly trained and come with a variety of experience. Therefore, the greater this combination of factors that the counselor brings, the greater is the potential for the couple to find reconciliation.
In addition, there are Christian counselors who are available to help individuals or couples who are looking for the answers on how to stop marriage fighting. These Christian counselors often bring a spiritual perspective and can be pastors, priests or lay-leaders within the church.
Often, a counseling session consists of an opportunity for disagreeing or fighting couples to share their perspective and point of view. In addition, there are rules that are set forth as part of a counseling session. Often these rules state that whatever is being said stays within the session and can be freely stated without any fear of judgment or repercussions.
In addition, the counselor may employ a number of tools. Some of those tools can be role-playing, providing feedback to the partner when a statement is made, enhance listening and verbal skills, instruction on how to argue or disagree properly, helping with a game plan to enhance the relationship, etc.
Communication
Also, it is important to know that one of the major reasons why couples fight is due to the lack of communication in the relationship. Therefore, one of the solutions to the question of how to stop marriage fighting is to understand the importance of communication and implementing this key element to build a successful relationship.
Therefore, communication is defined as that commitment to listen carefully to what the partner is saying and not saying and also to read body language. In addition, it is important as part of the communication process to say back to the partner what they are saying or what one thinks that they are hearing. This particular effort will help to not only facilitate the communication process, but ensure that there is no miscommunication occurring.
Also, when one of the individuals in the relationship is communicating it is important to respect the other person's viewpoint and not minimize what is being said. This is important because even if what is said is disagreed with it is the value of the person saying it that is honored through the communication process. This value is conveyed to the other through listening.
Copyright (c) 2010 Ted Sikkink
Action Steps On How To Stop Marriage Fighting
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2013年07月29日 18:24:26

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Open fires are one of oldest ways of heating a home. There's something very primal and instinctive about an open fire. The gentle sound of the flames lapping and the flickering of the flames are very soothing. Log fires are pretty good for the environment, too, as using wood as a fuel encourages people to plant more trees. And not all the carbon in wood is released back to the atmosphere when a log is burned (what do you think the ash and charcoal left behind is made of?), so it's probably a carbon-neutral heating source, even if the smoke isn't all that pleasant in large quantities, although small amounts of wood smoke smells quite pleasant, especially from pine or apple logs. Wood ash is good for the soil, and is perfect for reducing acidity in soils - I've even seen a potato growing in nothing but wood ash. Coal, however, is another story. This is a fossil fuel, so burning it adds to carbon emissions, and the ash is pretty toxic, too, and the smoke is never pleasant.
However, fire is one of those primitive things that is very pleasant and relaxing in the right place and in the right amount, but is devastating if it gets out of control. You only have to read the news bulletins about bushfires in California or Australia to see what the effects of out-of-control fires are. Britain isn't immune from fires, either - just ask the local fire brigade. Enjoy your open log fire, by all means, but remember to keep things safe.
First of all, make sure that your chimney is sound and that it is swept regularly. Soot building up in chimneys is a common trigger for fires, as soot is pure carbon, which is flammable. Do not try to clean a chimney yourself - get a professional chimney sweep in (and no, they won't wear a tall hat and you can't kiss them for good luck).
After chimney fires, sparks are the next most common cause of house fires that are started from the fireplace. All fires snap and spit a bit, although some types of wood are worse than others. Pine logs seem to be the worst offenders here, but you can use these in an open fire if you take basic precautions. First of all, never leave a fire unattended. Overnight and when leaving the room, put a spark guard in front of the fire. This will stop sparks flying out into the room. Remove it when you come back in, as it does stop the heat getting out into the room, too.
The sparks will still fly out. This is why most open fires are constructed with a hearth made of stone, brick or concrete in front of it. This is where most hot embers and sparks will fall, so remember to keep this area clean and clear from pine needles, leaves, ends of matches and the like. Most embers will go out pretty quickly if they fall on an empty hearth, as they have no more fuel and they lose their heat quickly. However, some sparks and embers can go beyond the hearth area. Always have a metal shovel nearby and use this to pick up the fallen ember. Sparks can merely be thumped out with the bottom of the shovel.
To prevent your carpet or other flooring being damaged by flying sparks and embers, use a hearthrug. This will get pretty singed by flying sparks, and that's the point. It's small and replaceable.
To prevent things (including people) falling into the open fire and getting burnt, use a fireguard. This is larger than a fireguard and won't stop sparks. In fact, a fireguard should be used around any radiant heating appliance. One bonus is that you can dry laundry on a fireguard, as long as you don't let things get too hot - keep an eye on them!
Use your smoke alarms, but be aware that if the fire smokes a bit, as often happens when you're trying to "draw" it and this will set the alarm off. Annoying, but necessary.
Open Fires - Some Safety Tips
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2013年07月26日 17:54:43

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For the decor of your baths, some good choices on mini shelf systems have to be made. Apart from serving the functional purpose, the new makeover should also be capable of giving your bathroom a unique and attractive appeal. If simplicity is what you want, you can install bathroom magazine holder. There are many other options for buyers which make selecting more difficult. The selection criteria will get a little eased up as you will read on.
There are lots of different types of closets and storage designs available. Some can be built with the walls and some drilled with the structure of the basin. Several people would like to go for the second option. These are some of the finest options, as they can easily be removed whenever you would like to change the style and the decor of the bath. Similarly there are options in which you can have both things together a closet with a mirror and a single one; it all depends upon what you choose. Budget is another criterion that cannot be ignored while planning a change in decor.
On the market there are different styles with multiple changes like in some you will have good finishing and some will be having a rough touch. Similarly, some options include fine polished colors. If both beauty and usage is the reason then the first option is not a bad one to choose.
Washroom colors are really a supportive when you consider purchasing a closet, matching the colors would bring a fine and an attractive look to the entire place. On the other hand, you can pick the option which would bring a slight compliment or a little contrast difference in it. This will give a more decent shine and look to the bath.
For instance, if the toilet is up in the white, the ideal color choice would be white to give it a much brighter and shining look. Glass cabinets are another good choice; they come in different styles and patterns, and give a much heavier look to the bath. And if you are going for this particular then you can easily find several alternatives, including clear, bright, and foggy or a shady glass design.
If you are looking apart from style and decor, there is another thing you need to consider. Decide earlier on as to how many doors you want in the closet. It all goes down to the size of your bathroom. Some people like to have just two while some prefer three doors. Selection of the number of doors is again a personal choice apart from the usage and style. Usually people prefer to have small design in the toilets as there are not so many items to be stored.
If you are going to change the look of your toilet and if you want to make the toilet becoming less messy, then just go for the options mentioned above. For good price bargains will lead you to affordable budget and will result in a much better alternative.
Things To Consider While Choosing Bath Closets
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2013年07月25日 09:30:36

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An eco-friendly home benefits the occupants as well as the rest of the world. When a home is eco-friendly or energy efficient, the cost of energy bills is greatly reduced. This is good for the person who pays the bills and helps conserve energy for others. Wooden blinds on windows are one of the best ways to make a home eco-friendly. They will help block heat from leaving the room or entering the room through the glass window depending on the season. They are also handy for modifying the natural light that enters the room. It can be dim or bright and reduce the need for electric light.
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) promotes responsible management of forests all over the world. They set the standard and give certification for forest products. Their standards require that the social, economic and environmental interests are equally balanced in the use of forest products. There are many different kinds of wood that is eco-friendly for the manufacture of wooden blinds including walnut, maple, teak, cedar as well as sub-tropical woods all taken from managed, sustainable forests.
Wood that is sourced from sustainable forests or groves has a much smaller impact on the environment than the same amount of metal or plastic. Wood is renewable, oil and minerals are not. Sustainable wood also takes much less energy to process, and there are far less toxic by-products during manufacture that will seep into the earth and groundwater.
Along with reducing the homeowner's carbon footprint, Wooden Blinds are beautiful. They come in four main slat sizes and many different colours with tape and tassels to match. Each room can have a different colour and style. Wooden Blinds will compliment any décor from contemporary to classical, Mediterranean to Oriental. They are made to measure for each window which makes them even more efficient for controlling the temperature of the room.
Those thinking about getting new curtains as part of a renovation of their home should take some time to research Wooden Blinds. Curtains may look good when they are new, but they quickly sag and become dusty. The lovely colour they have in the beginning fades in direct sunlight and with great temperature changes. Curtains also will not regulate the loss of heat through the glass window. Wood never loses its attractiveness and often improves with age. Since the blinds are pre measured and cut, they fit perfectly and keep the heat inside the room or, on hot days, outside. Blinds made of plastic or aluminium gradually begin to look shabby or stained by dust and, in time, are a detriment to the décor of the room.
During renovation of the home or simply to have lower energy bills, wooden blinds are the answer. There is a huge selection of woods, colours and styles online, so each house can have unique window dressings. Blinds made from sustainable wood, custom fit for each window go a long way to make a house eco-friendly. This benefits the home owner as well as the rest of the world.
Make Your Home Eco-Friendly With Wooden Blinds
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2013年07月25日 09:27:53

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Due to historical reasons, China's enterprises to do the work of intellectual property protection is not enough, companies must ensure the protection of their intellectual property, we must have a thorough understanding of intellectual property rights.
"intellectual property" word, English as Intellectual ProPerty, is a product of the development of modern commodity economy, after three hundred years of evolution and development, has become in many countries national legislation and relevant international treaties Bilateral trade agreements and international technology widely used in legal language. "Intellectual property is created based on their own intellectual activity results and management activities in the experience, knowledge and rights under the law." Or "intellectual property means that people can create their intellectual achievements are legally entitled to post-secondary have the right to. "has its own unique legal and legal characteristics. Intellectual broad and narrow sense. Narrow intellectual property refers to the traditional sense of the intellectual property rights. Generally include patents, trademarks and copyrights (also known as copyright), but also the rights relating to copyright that neighboring rights. Broad scope of intellectual property, has to "establish WIPO Convention" and "Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement" two major international IPR conventions defined. There are eight categories enumerated in the former, the latter has listed nine categories.
corporate intellectual property protection related to all categories of intellectual property rights, intellectual property rights covering all categories, the paper focuses on how companies conduct copyright, trademark, trade name rights, patents and proprietary technology protection.

Since reform and opening, with the increasing number of foreign relations, especially after China's accession to WTO, foreign companies as companies face competition from companies protect their intellectual property rights awareness gradually increase. Like the reform and opening up, the domestic enterprises and foreign joint venture in only the equipment, plant valued shares, while cultivating his own trademark so hard free joint venture, not a consideration of the phenomenon does not happen again today. However, due to historical reasons, China's enterprises in IPR protection work done is not enough business to effectively protect their intellectual property, we must have a thorough understanding of intellectual property rights, and only with sufficient understanding of intellectual property rights in order to for the effective protection of intellectual property rights of enterprises.
an intellectual property overview
"intellectual property" word, English as Intellectual ProPerty, is a product of the development of modern commodity economy. After three hundred years of evolution and development, has become in many countries national legislation and relevant international treaties, bilateral trade agreements and international technology widely used in legal language. It is directly translated into Chinese as "intellectual property" or "intellectual property rights", but the habit of many scholars translate it into "intellectual property", and now this translation has been accepted by most people, and is widely used.
1, the concept of intellectual property
fact difficult to "intellectual property" under a correct and being widely accepted definition, so far, most of the world's legal monographs, law, and international Treaty, are just starting to clear from the scoping concept of intellectual property or intellectual property rights to define it.
However, some domestic scholars to help people understand the meaning of intellectual property rights, to understand the concept of intellectual property, from reality, the following description of intellectual property, intellectual property is that people create based on their achievements and intellectual activity management activities in the experience, knowledge and rights under the law. Or intellectual property refers to people can create their intellectual achievements are legally entitled to proprietary rights.
This paper argues that understanding of "intellectual property" concept, or to grasp in two ways: First, the scope of intellectual property rights should be from the staff to understand the concept of intellectual property rights; Second, it should be noted that intellectual property is a connotation is deepening, Epitaxial expanding concept. It along with science and technology, the development of literature and art to expand and deepen. "
2, the legal nature of intellectual property is an intangible
intellectual property rights, is a special kind of civil rights, which is the intellectual property legal nature of July 1, 1993 implementation "Enterprise Accounting Standards" Article 31, intangible assets consist primarily of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, non-patented technology, information, franchise rights, land use rights, goodwill and so on.
correctly understand and a deep understanding of the legal nature of intellectual property rights, for the protection of intellectual property rights, intellectual property rights infringement cases identified and dealt with, it is necessary to carry out trade and intellectual property is very useful. correct understanding and a deep understanding of the legal nature of intellectual property from the following three aspects .
(1) the object of intellectual property intellectual achievements, intellectual achievement is a form of knowledge without a body product
people often have mental creativity, creative mental work can be called mental labor, mental labor to complete the creative work product is an intellectual achievement. intellectual achievements are varied, a wide variety of intellectual property are generally required to use a carrier substance represented or held out, however, the carrier itself is not intellectual achievements , but only a fixed object or intellectual performance as the object of intellectual property intellectual content without a body, intellectual achievement itself is not tangible. intellectual content of the intangibility and tangibility of its carrier, is the intellectual achievements and Other movable and immovable property and other tangible objects biggest difference.
(2) with the use of intellectual value and value is its intellectual property rights to become the prerequisite and basis
intellectual achievement is the product of human creative labor, often mental work is of high quality products, with use value and people can understand it, master it, use it, it is a treasure, and can use it to create new more wealth, intellectual achievements can spread application in the commodity economy conditions as commodity production and exchange, it has become a knowledge of the value of the goods, became an object of trade.
(3) the wealth of knowledge that only the law in order to be recognized or grant of intellectual property
intellectual property generation and science and technology, the development of literature and art are closely linked with the development of commodity economy has a close relationship with intellectual property legal system is closely linked to the generation of human historical development of each period are with intellectual labor to create intellectual achievements, but those who enjoy intellectual achievements to complete intellectual property rights, but it is in the infancy of capitalism especially after the establishment of the capitalist system With the development of commodity economy, intellectual achievements become a commodity, a wealth, a pioneering market for enterprises effective source of high profits in this historical context, the formulation of laws and regulations to protect intellectual property has become the objective needs of individuals and enterprises to create intellectual property as recognized by law or granted by law, are protected only , the owner of the wealth of knowledge it holds intellectual property rights.
3, The Legal Character
⑴ Intellectual property is intangible property intangible property are those that do not have the physical form of the assets, intellectual property rights in the world almost all are considered intangible property, intellectual property owners of their intellectual activity as the creation of intellectual achievements legally entitled to intellectual property and its contents are patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., rather than the patented product or trademark goods or work itself In other words, is the subject of intellectual property rights, intellectual property is the carrier of inventions, trademarks, or the work itself, with the intellectual property rights of intellectual property can not be confused with the carrier.
⑵ exclusivity., also known as exclusive or exclusivity. refers to intellectual property owners of their knowledge or intellectual achievements have an exclusive or exclusive rights, without their permission, no person shall use, otherwise constitute infringement, which is the most important intellectual property legal characteristics.
⑶ replicability of intellectual property requires a certain fixed and tangible objects in order to reflect as patent patent must be reflected in the product, or you can copy the methods of manufacturing products. copyrights must be reflected in the works on.
⑷ regional. means any one intellectual property, only a certain geographic area in accordance with the law and was able to produce in the geographic area protected by the law, which is different from the tangible property of another important legal characteristics. According to this feature, according to a State obtain intellectual property laws of the country only in the field of legal protection, while in other countries are not subject to legal protection of that country, unless there is between the two countries bilateral intellectual property protection agreements or joint participation on the international protection of intellectual property Convention.
⑸ temporality. refers to the protection of owners of intellectual property law is not indefinite, but limited, exceeding this time limit will not be protected, intellectual property then became common wealth of mankind, anyone can usually patent protection period is 20 years.
4, the scope of intellectual property
scope of intellectual property, there is both broad and narrow. narrow intellectual property, refers to the traditional sense intellectual property generally includes patents, trademarks and copyrights (also known as copyright), also includes the rights relating to copyright that neighboring rights. broad scope of intellectual property, has for two major international IPR conventions defined.
(1) "established WIPO Convention" enumerated range
"established WIPO Convention" signed in 1967, its second Article, intellectual property include the following: ① About Literature , artistic and scientific works right; ② on the performances of performing artists, recording and broadcasting rights ③ in all fields of human rights within the invention; ④ scientific discoveries about the rights; ⑤ on industrial design rights; ⑥ About product trademarks, service marks, trade names and other commercial mark rights; ⑦ on the suppression of unfair competition rights; ⑧ everything else from industrial, scientific and literary, artistic activities in the field of intellectual creations rights arising. Currently, the World Intellectual Property organization has become a specialized agency of the United Nations is one of 16 since June 3, 1980, China became a member of WIPO.
(2) "Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement" is defined
scope of the World Trade Organization (referred WTO) reached a "Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement" first made the following explanation of intellectual property: intellectual property agreement refers to the second part of Section seven listed all intellectual property rights, including: copyright and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications rights, industrial designs, patents, integrated circuit layout (topology) right undisclosed proprietary information rights, trade secret rights mainly refers to unfair competition.
of 1986 promulgated the "PRC Civil Law", in Chapter III "Intellectual Property" on page 94-97 of the International Covenant of knowledge the scope of property rights, including copyrights, patents, trademarks, rights of discovery, invention, and other scientific and technological achievements rights. shows that China's "Civil Law" under the scope of intellectual property, basically, and "WIPO Convention "intellectual property rights as defined in the same range.
" established WIPO Convention "on a range of intellectual property rights belong to the copyright ① nature; ② rights belong to the copyright rights of adjoining; ③, ⑤, ⑥, ⑦ belong to the industrial property rights;
Second, corporate intellectual property protection
corporate intellectual property protection related to all categories of intellectual property rights, intellectual property rights covering all categories This paper focuses on how companies conduct copyright, trademark, trade name rights, patents and proprietary technology and other intellectual property protection.
⑴ copyright protection for enterprises, copyright protection was mainly targeted at business computer programs, databases, and product and service brochures, advertisements, posters, packaging design, etc. from the market in terms of culture, books, newspapers and other objects are also copyright protected. Rights of the enterprise concerned, not a priority (in addition to computer software outside) for enterprises, industrial property is the most important and most should know something about intellectual property.
⑵ trademark protection trademark is the difference between commodity producers or sales, service provider's logo, usually by text, graphics or a combination thereof components. Trademarks are the main elements of industrial property in the country, mainly refers to the enterprise through trademark registration for the trademark rights, China's "Trademark Law" put it known trademark. trademark has made use of the principle, the principle of registration and mixed principles three principles, our country and the majority of countries have implemented the principle of registration.
Keywords: intellectual property, copyright, trademark, trade name rights, patents and proprietary technology
Discussion on Intellectual Property Protection
Abstract:
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2013年07月24日 17:46:58

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How To Find A Small Speaker With A Big Sound In 2012
Whether music is a passion or an enjoyment chances are you own some kind of the music system. We are living in an era where it is so easy to enjoy our music. We no longer have to tinker away with huge piece of equipment and keep our vinyl out of harm's way. With the ever-increasing pace of technological advance there have been many improvements made on the stereo and speaker.
We are arguably spoiled for choice as year after year more and more models are produced. There are so many choices, when looking into purchasing one for the first time or upgrading a current model. The great part is these days we can have a speaker that stands alone and operates as a powerful Sterio unit.
Before looking at the top brands, an interesting point to think about is that expensive makes do not necessarily make the speaker better quality. There are lesser-known brands that often have better features. They are also often made from higher-quality materials. So have a good look around and keep your options open. See what others are saying about lesser-known speakers before you make a purchase.
One particular feature that is good to look out for when purchasing a mini speaker is duel USB technology. Duel USB technology makes it possible for the speaker to to be used with PCs and laptops as well. Not only that but the duel USB technology will enable you to connect with MP3 players, handheld games and many phones. You have many more options with this type speaker and get a lot more bang for your buck.
In order to make certain that you get crystal clear sound, free from interference and static, make sure you get a mini speaker that has a digital signal processing base. It's a kind of Turbo bass and will give your music a new sense of vigour at the same time as keeping your audio free from sound clutter. If the speaker also has a sub woofer it can really keep the sound full of clarity. This also allows the sound to travel further and boosts the volume considerably.
The battery life of your mini speaker is certainly a factor to consider, it is worth comparing a few. Also look at how ruggedly built the speaker is. It may have other features such as the dust proofing and speakers with screwless casings. These are good because they will generally be more durable and last longer than others.
Before purchasing your mini speaker also be aware of the size and weight. This can vary greatly between the models that are on offer. You will want a compact speaker if you're on the move. Generally portable speakers that are preferred are six or seven inches long and weigh under a pound. There are some speakers available that are very small and light. These fit easily into an armband and are most useful if you wish to listen to music whilst doing exercise.
Technology these days is moving at such a phenomenal pace. When it comes to the mini speaker this is no exception. Another recent introduction to the mini speaker is micro-SD card compatibility. Having a card reader built in to the speaker is a nice feature. It means you can store a huge amount of music on the card then slot it easily into the speaker. The micro SD card is like a smaller version of the memory card that is used in a regular camera. The micro SD card can be placed in the laptop just like the regular card. The micro SD card does this by fitting inside a slightly bigger card that is precisely the same shape and size as a regular SD card.
Having a micro SD card slot in the mini speaker transforms the device into a wireless portable mini stereo Some are ready for Bluetooth also, so you can also enjoy a wireless experience which is especially handy for outdoor use. You can be sure that the mini speaker will connect to a variety of appliances with the mini auxiliary output jack. This is the small 3.5 mm jack that you find at the end of most headphones. You can plug these speakers into MP3 players, computers and many phones.
So, there are many advantages that come with buying a mini speaker. Being small in size means it will fit easily into any bag and can be carried anywhere without weighing you down. They can be fairly well priced also. You are likely to find a good mini speaker that will fit your budget however much you are looking to spend.
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2013年07月23日 13:54:11

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Making preparations for the perfect wedding can be the most stressful job you will ever undertake! This article can help you discover the easiest ways to get your wedding planned with minimal stress.
While it may seem obvious, remember that who you plan to marry should be the biggest consideration of all! Do not rush this life altering lifelong decision. Take care to consider the person's characteristics--both the things that you love about them and the aspects that are challenging.
When you have figured out your theme and the date of your wedding, one of the next things you need to do to keep your wedding planning going is to figure out which invitations you will use. Traditional wedding invitations will be in your wedding colors and will let your guests know the theme. Be sure to consider all of your options before selecting wedding invitations.
Midday is your best bet for planning a wedding reception. Since most of your guests won't be interested in drinking much alcohol during this hour, you can save money on your bar costs. Furthermore, lunch receptions are often less expensive than dinner receptions. This allows you to add more to your menu or use the savings elsewhere.
Ask to borrow something from a friend to wear on the day you get married. That way you will have the look you desire and the wedding will be even more extraordinary.
Think about printing up your own personal wedding invitations if you are short on money but long on time. You can buy an invitation kit; you will then be allowed to pick all of your own inks and fonts.
When you plan out tables at the wedding, be sure that there's even numbers of guests sitting at them. As well, consider grouping tables by the ages of guests. This way those at the tables will have more to talk about.
Consider opening a credit card that offers a rewards program. Weddings can be expensive and having a card with miles and deals is vital. Charge your wedding-related purchases and watch your rewards balance soar.
If you want the bride to be happy on her wedding day, it is important that everything meets her standards. You could cause her a lot of stress if she's doing all of the planning or if there are any surprises that might disappoint her. Make sure she approves all aspects of the wedding, or she might get annoyed.
For instance, think about filling a menu with popular choices in a contemporary fusion style. Another alternative is to offer ethnic dessert or drink options to the menu.
You will surely want to be photographed with a number of your wedding guests. If you're going to have a big wedding, then getting all of the people into pictures without a prearranged plan can be difficult because things are hectic. Inform your guests in advance of where and when to be for pictures with you, and make sure the photographer is free for a few hours to do this.
Consider placing your colorful cake on a piece of fabric or tablecloth in a coordinating color. Your fabric could have patterns or solids and range from heavy textures to silk or satin. All of this can play up visual interest and tie various facets together into a cohesive aesthetic.
Although wedding planning can be difficult, the advice from this article will assist in making your wedding day a successful one. Hopefully the tips in this article have helped you with some ideas to make planning your wedding less of a nightmare and more fun!
A Basic Guide For Planning Your Wedding
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2013年07月23日 09:47:28

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A Clogged Shower Drain Can Be Cleared Easily
Nobody ever likes to address a backed up drain. If you know what you're doing and can stay calm, it can be quite pain free frankly. Clogged bathtub drain pipes are simply part of having a household and occur regularly. You will have to know how to fix the problem if you start to notice standing water or if your bathroom drain is plugged with hair.
Clogged Shower Drain
To be able to fix the challenge, you have got to realize 2 specific points:
• The Strategy To Unclog A Bathtub Drain - It can be a little nerve-racking the first time you discover how to deal with a clogged bathtub drain, but you do not want to get too worked up over it. You will be just fine if you're able to handle working with some soap scum and wet wild hair. Before you begin the work, it is important to have the suitable equipment as well as to be aware of proper technique for clarifying the drain.
• Utilizing Chemical Cleansers - The clogged shower drain may not always be repaired just by doing away with the hair and soap scum inside the drain. It is usually recommended to employ a heavy-duty chemical solution as a way to clear the drain. A number of the choices you've here include baking soda drain cleansers, acid drain purifiers, organic and natural drain cleaners, air shooting drain cleaners, and much more. How powerful of a drain cleaner that'll be required will likely be determined by the potency of the clogged drain.
You can make your job less difficult by using one of the numerous available instruments. It is possible that all you will need is a do-it-yourself tool such as a wire hanger. Conventional store bought tools like drain clearers, plungers, and drain augers function as well. You can find out just what kind of tool you need when you have determined the process to clear the drain. For this reason you should wait until you are educated on the subject before you go out and spend your hard earned money on tools that you may not need to fix the issue.
Prevention is really the simplest way to fix a drain. Utilizing the proper precautions to keep a clogged shower drain from taking place is the perfect way to keep your water system clear. Spend the additional cash to purchase a high quality drain trap. Make sure you get rid of all hair or soap scum left in the bathtub after each use. Don't leave the shower without cleaning the bottom of all objects. To be able to keep a shower free of clogs, these are the steps you will need to follow.
A clogged bathroom drain is nothing to be frightened about. It is just an issue that we must handle from time to time. Being aware of the methods to clear the drain and the different things that you can do to prevent the issue is what is important. Relax and take a few extra minutes right now to learn the precautionary measures to prevent a clog, the methods to clear the drain, as well as the numerous tools available to you that can make clearing a clogged shower drain less of a challenge!
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2013年07月22日 12:29:16

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Present buying for that special someone is a wonderful experience. It is an opportunity for the giver to truly express how he or she feels about another person. In order to make sure that a loved one is happy with a present, the buyer must use a certain present buying psychology. He or she must come to know different things about that person for the gift giving to have any sentimental meaning. There is nothing that feels as good as seeing a smile on a spouse or significant other's face when he or she opens a gift that the giver thought of on his or her own.
Some people just ask their mates what it is that they desire to have for a present on the holidays. However, other people feel that it is much more special if they attempt to figure out the gift on their own. These individuals somehow feel that deciding what the gift is alone will somehow make the gift more special. There is a certain truth to that, as it means that the giver and the receiver were very close. When a giver purchases the right gift for the other person without asking, it means that he or she knows the heart of that person.
Women tend to be more involved in gift giving than men. They remember important dates much more than men do. In addition, they like to outwardly express their affections where some men are clueless as to just what affections are. Women are usually very good at buying gifts that are practical. They know what their mate needs without asking because they take the time to observe things and take mental notes on what may be missing. Most women buy their mates things like underwear, sneakers, and watches.
Men are a bit trickier when it comes to buying gifts. They usually only purchase such things on special occasions to avoid getting into trouble. They like to focus on visually stimulating gifts like lingerie and clothes for their woman. Whatever they would like to see their women in, they love to buy. In addition, it is not uncommon for a man to buy very expensive jewellery such as a ring for a woman, so the woman can show off to her friends and tell them how great the gift is. The previously stated psychology works in most cases, so sticking to that psychology is fine.
Psychology Of Present Buying For That Special Someone
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2013年07月20日 08:48:33

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Keywords Semantic Context Chinese legal culture issues
late 1980s, accompanied by Chinese scholars on cultural issues of particular concern, in-depth discussion and heated debate, as the exotic "legal culture" does not begin mysteriously became popular in legal circles. So jurisprudence, comparative law and legal history many scholars have battle field participate in the discussion, rather themselves as "legal culture" of the situation. ① However, like other hot issues discussed in the same fashion, "Law Culture Fever" did not last long began to cool. Of course, the legal culture of discourse in China still continued down, and in many writings appear frequently, as scholars on the meaning and context of legal culture lacks a clear definition, in-depth discussion and interpretation system. Therefore, people often feel that this concept is not without novelty, but somewhat confusing, unwieldy, vague weakness and flashy. This paper tries to define the concept of legal culture semantic analysis of legal and cultural context of the concept to explain the type of legal culture and reveal its inherent complexity, and finally discuss the process of development of contemporary Chinese law faces legal cultural issue.
order to properly understand and precise grasp the concept of legal culture, we need to Friedman's concept of legal culture and legal traditions Merriman concept to transform and integration. Legal concept of culture is the core legal concepts, this concept is usually the product of a particular history is closely associated with the culture. Of course, I do not want to hold the legal concept of an essentially cultural stances, exclusion diversified understanding. Any person has the right to define the meaning of legal culture, in other words, no one should monopolize understanding of the concept of legal culture. But if the people for an understanding of the concept discrepancy is too large, it will lead to "homonym" style of talking, which will affect the effective discussion and communication. Therefore, the adoption of a new academic community attaches great importance to the concept of the concept of "name", and strive for the basic meaning of a particular concept to reach certain minimum consensus. Therefore, the legal concept of culture to be "name" is not a meaningless academic game. In defining the meaning of the new concept, we though there is no absolute standard, but after all, there are some relatively standard, otherwise it will fall into the "public that the woman said," The rational relativism. Such standards generally include the following considerations: We are using the new concept gives it an irreplaceable meaning; whether we are using a new concept for a new demonstration and help draw new conclusions; whether the concept will help us to use the new paradigm shift in academic and methodological innovation. If the answer to the above question is no, then we use the new concept of real significance.
Needless to say, "legal culture" concept originated in the West. Tocqueville in "Democracy in America," a book used by the "feelings" ② The term includes legal culture on the implication, but "feelings" meaning broader. In the West, the first "legal culture" is the American scholar Lawrence Friedman. In his "Legal Culture and Social Development," a paper first proposed and defined the meaning of legal culture. He believes that the legal culture is "closely associated with the legal system of values ??and attitudes, values ??and attitudes that determine the legal system in the entire socio-cultural status of" ③. According to his interpretation, the "values ??and attitudes" relating to the question: "way of training lawyers and judges how? What people think of the law? Groups or individuals are willing to resort to the courts? Why people resort to legal professionals, other officials or arbitrator? whether people respect the law, government, and traditions? class structure and the use of the legal system or what kind of relationship exists between? formal social management tools beyond what other non-formal way? what people like what management way, why? ④ "Friedman later the meaning of the law there are some modifications cultural expressions, such as" legal culture is a system of public awareness about the law, "" legal culture is an integral part of the general culture ", etc., but overall He insisted on the basic meaning of this concept. Many of his later treatise continues to expand legal culture studies, and achieved important results, the Western legal culture in the field of the most influential scholars.
originally referred to the concept of legal culture of the law, that people in a given society's awareness of the law, values, attitudes. However, this concept is gaining popularity as widespread, scholars of this concept gradually formed a different understanding. Looking at the domestic and international discussions on the concept of legal culture and use it as a concept people in addition to the law, there are several popular understanding. A common understanding of the law as part of the culture, and thus in scope, including all legal phenomenon. According to this understanding, all legal phenomena are cultural, legal phenomenon equal legal culture. For example, Britain's Bair on the legal culture as broadly understood, that it includes all the legal phenomenon. ⑨ In China, this broad understanding of the legal culture is also very popular. In fact, this broad legal concept of culture is only suitable to describe the beginning of civil society in the relationship between law and culture. In other types of society, especially in the modern society, the law began to be separated from the culture, with its own relatively independent boundary, if all laws are as a cultural phenomenon, can not distinguish between legal and other social phenomena. Clearly, the law generally attributed to cultural aspects, and use legal culture to refer to all the legal phenomenon, although from a macro point of view there is nothing wrong culture, but this understanding is far too broad and does not help us detailed analysis of legal and cultural relations.
on the internal structure of the law, the legal system and legal culture relationship is especially important. Legal system mainly consists of three parts, namely the law of the objects shape, ie prisons, courts and other legal instruments of torture facilities. Second, the legal form of organization, such as legislation, law enforcement and judicial institutions and their personnel. Third, the content of the law forms, namely the rule of law, principles and procedures. Legal and cultural values ??of the legal system has a significant impact. Different national legal systems often stems from the differences between the legal and cultural differences, for example in divorce institutionally, the ancient Chinese is one of "seven", "three go" system, the ancient Islamic countries is one of "three off system "Medieval practiced in the West is to prohibit divorce system, which is precisely the differences in the systems under different cultural backgrounds legal culture reflected. Legal culture for the operation of the legal system also has a significant impact, because of legal and cultural differences, many of the same and similar legal systems in practice often very different creature. For example, in recent legal reforms in Turkey with a Swiss civil law, Egypt copy of the French Civil Code, Chinese transplant the German Civil Code, but these foreign legal systems are largely local legal culture is digested far not produced They are in the country that effect. Generally speaking, a society's legal system and legal culture more coordinated legal system run better. Because in this case, the inner spirit of the law and the rule of law form of integration, the legal system and legal culture highly fit, the rule of law is no longer an outside force tool, but a value within the letter by This compliance with the law will be the people's initiative. Conversely, if the legal system and legal culture of conflict, the legal system will not get people's identity, the book of the law will be in name only, while the concept of the law would be name exists all. It is in this sense that Berman was stressed the importance of faith in the law before the 20th century that Western legal facing a crisis, only to hope through positive law, natural law, and the integration of historical jurisprudence out of the woods. ○ 16 changes in the legal system is relatively easy to achieve in a short time legislators can blow away the cobwebs legal system, but they are unable to pass commands to change people's legal culture, legal culture change is relatively slow. In many societies, after the abolition of the traditional legal system, the traditional legal culture often continue to exist. Such as China's current legal system provides a monogamous, but expose corruption in officialdom shady show that many officials and wealthy businessmen there, "wives" of the offense, this phenomenon is actually a disguised concubinage Chinese traditional legal culture reflected. Of course, the legal system, except for some purely technical rules, often unspoken certain values ??and spirit of his mouth, its continued existence and operation of a legal culture that people will no doubt have a subtle influence in modern society, the legal system for the legal culture impact is particularly significant. For example Blankenberge empirical research shows that if the civil rate as the legal culture indicators, the data show that Germany is much higher than the Dutch Civil Procedure, the former showing a "good v." legal culture, which presents the "avoid litigation" legal culture. It is puzzling that the mainstream culture of the two countries is basically the same, their economic and political system as well as the level of industrialization is also roughly the same, then why is there such a legal culture differences do? His in-depth analysis, legal culture This difference is mainly due to differences in legal systems, namely the Dutch legal system arrangements do not encourage people to go to court, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms exist makes people more inclined to pass through non-litigious dispute resolution, while Germany's institutional arrangements have access to the courts to resolve disputes motivate people-oriented. ○ 17 clear from the legal culture and legal system influence each other, depending on the specific relationship between them many other variables, because the situation varies.
second common understanding is equivalent to the legal traditions of the legal culture. Legal culture is usually the product of legal tradition, which some people in between these two concepts drew parallels. This understanding surface it seems logical, but in-depth analysis, but will notice some problems. Broad legal traditions usually refers to different civilizations, nation or country in the history of the formation of a unique legal system, such a legal system, including the legal system and legal concepts two elements, and culture are closely related. Legal tradition of a country's legal system, can also refer to several countries with common characteristics legal system, which is precisely the object of comparative law, and many called "comparative legal tradition" actual writings are important for the world a comparative study of the legal system. The development of human civilization, the legal system, different civilizations, ethnic or national formation of a different legal traditions. On their relationship with the contemporary legal terms can be roughly divided into six scenarios. The first type is completely destroyed, the most obvious example is the ancient Egyptian legal traditions, it is either in the system or in the concept of levels are completely out of the stage of history, has become a "legal history museum's heritage." The second type is intact, the Pacific Islands, or the legal tradition in some African tribes belong to this type. In the wave of globalization, these traditional laws although it is difficult to resist the modern law of the "invasion" and "pollution", but still doggedly survived, became the law of civil society in early modern living specimen. The third type is the cover of darkness, a typical example is the English common law tradition, it is in the case were not simply to achieve a touch of tradition and modernity successfully converted, is still showing strong vitality. The fourth is to turn over a type, a typical example is the French legal tradition. French legal tradition in the Revolution was a huge shock, and was replaced after the revolution of modern law. Although modern French law inherited by Roman law as the source of the civil law tradition, but in the form, content, and the value of both the spirit of the traditional achieve a new transcendence. The fifth is a hybrid of old and new, many of the laws of Islamic countries belong to this type. After the middle of the 19th century, a number of Islamic countries were forced into the legal process of modernization, from a large number of modern Western legal systems, the traditional legal system has been reformed. At the same time, they are in the field of religion and marriage and the family retained the traditional legal system, and in the contemporary Islamic revival movement in the hair to restore many of the traditional legal system, thus forming the traditional and the modern legal system, legal system, the coexistence of both . The sixth type is like new nostalgia to the laws of the state of contemporary China as the representative. Since the late Qing Dynasty, China at the institutional level forswear the traditional method, and from the West and the former Soviet Union to introduce a legal substitute, but the traditional legal culture still largely dominate and influence people's attitudes and awareness. Thus, the situation is very complicated legal tradition, some already perished, some parts perish, some survived, and some continued ever since. When we put the legal tradition that continues today (such as the British legal tradition) is loosely termed legal culture, it means that we have some of the existing legal system is also included in the scope of legal culture, which in any case are somewhat weird. Another idea is based on the different legal traditions treated differently, that is, the history of the legal tradition has become known as legal culture, and for the legal tradition continues to this day, only to be called the dimension of the concept of legal culture. This differentiated approach can not maintain law and cultural implications of identity, it will cause confusion in understanding. Therefore, there is legal culture and legal traditions although closely related concepts, but there is a need to be distinguished. Feasible idea is to use legal means legal traditions and cultural values ??and perceptions of the dimension, without involving its system of dimensions.
a legal and cultural meaning and context
by reading Friedman's writings on legal culture is not difficult to find that his concern is the U.S. representative of modern Western legal culture, the traditional legal culture and non-Western legal culture rarely involved. Thus, his main emphasis on the concept of legal culture legal dimension and the public dimension of the concept, it is similar to the concept of legal consciousness that we use for the legal dimension of the history and culture of the dimension of insufficient attention. Is worth noting that the concept of Merriman's legal tradition to some extent make up for this defect. Merriman believes that legal tradition is "about the nature of law, with regard to the law in the social and political status of the body, on the legal regime of proprietary organizations and applications as well as on the actual law or should be how to develop, apply, research, refine and teach rooted in a set of far-reaching, and the historical conditions of a concept; "" legal tradition and the legal system it is only part of the cultural link. "⑦ As Merriman also stressed that the legal concept of the traditional concept of factors, Ellman In the "Comparative Legal Culture", a book discussing the concept of legal culture, they naturally refers to this concept. ⑧ but regrettably, Ellman of this concept is not unique in the depth of excavation and concrete analysis. In contrast, the traditional concept of the laws of Merriman addition to emphasizing the dimension of the traditional concept of the law, but also highlighted the historical dimension of the legal traditions and cultural dimensions. In Merriman opinion, legal traditions Perspective legal concepts with far-reaching historical roots, it changes constrained by historical conditions; legal system is not directly associated with the culture, but through legal tradition and culture linked. However, Merriman understanding of the concept of legal tradition that some narrow, legal traditions, in addition to outside legal concepts should also include the legal system.
third common understanding of the legal culture is equivalent to the legal awareness. Narrow meaning of the concept of legal culture and legal concept of consciousness is indeed similar, but there are still some differences between the two. First, awareness of the law can refer to specific populations legal psychology, can also refer to the individual members of the legal community psychology, and legal culture is a collection of concepts, usually refers to the legal community values ??and perceptions, individual awareness of the law does not constitute a "cultural . " Secondly, the law of the state of consciousness usually remains hidden and difficult to find, but the law often have their own cultural patterns and symbols, such as when people see the West solemn church wedding, Muslim women face the mystery and Indian widows in raging fire The brave sacrificial victims, direct thought was legal culture rather than a legal sense.
fourth common understanding is that the legal culture as an interpretation method. Of course, from a cultural point of legal research and analysis, with the use of economic, political, and other ways to explain the same interpretation of the law has its value, but the "culture" is too broad meaning, which itself requires explanation. It was pointed out long ago, the "need to explain the word itself," as explained in the methodological premise is quite problematic. ⑩ In addition, this approach helps to understand the law despite cultural implication, but it will ignore the economic and political as well as other causal factors for the impact of the law. Discussion about the meaning of legal culture there are other various viewpoints, ○ 11 we do not itemize. All in all, I believe that we have only from a legal point of view to understand and define the concept of the concept of legal culture, in order to avoid the generalization of this concept and abuse in order to make this concept has analytically operability. Now, I would try to clean the legal concept of culture expressed as follows: legal culture is rooted in a particular society, history and culture of legal values ??and perceptions. To understand this abstract concept, we need to place it in the context of a particular relationship with elaborate.
According to Friedman's interpretation, each of the legal system, whether it is specific to the nation, the state's legal system is still universal legal system, and consists of three parts, namely the rule of law to be operational framework, such as the political system and judicial institutions; Second, the rule of law itself; Third, call the legal value of legal culture and attitudes. ⑤ Friedman believes that the U.S. and other modern Western law has a "lawyer thinking 'tendency to over-emphasis on the first two parts of the legal system, while ignoring the dimension of legal culture. Friedman's concept of legal culture is mainly devoted to this tendency, emphasizing the importance of the concept of the law. People usually broad cultural perspective of culture in three dimensions, namely the dimension of objects, systems and concepts Dimension Dimension. Corresponding to this, as a cultural phenomenon of legal form of the law can be divided into objects (such as prisons, police, torture and robe, etc.), institutional form of the law and the ideology of the law. Friedman's concept of the legal system, the first two parts can be subsumed under the scope of the legal system, and the objects of the law and the legal system is closely related to the legal facilities may also be included in the scope of the legal system. ⑥ such as generalized cultural area of ??the law mainly refers to the system of law and the concept of the law, legal culture refers to the concept of the law, that people's values ??and attitudes law. This concept of the law rooted in the consciousness of people, directly affect people's behavior and activities, and thus the system of law for the existence and functioning of an important impact. Meanwhile, Friedman's concern civil law concept of culture "living law", value the actual operation of the law of life, rather than books in black and white, this law. This perspective that the effectiveness of the law society has far more than the formal legal system, but also in life informal laws, the practical effect of the latter is sometimes bigger than the former. Informal law and legal culture are closely related, often engendered legal culture, such as the customary form of the law is. Overall, Friedman emphasized from the perspective of the sociology of law concept of legal culture, intended to boycott the U.S. too technical, legal and formal tendencies and attempt to correct the popular Western legal legal positivism biased. He believes that the jurist's legal profession should not be obsessed with style and no substance and fluff, but should be concerned about the public's attitude towards the law and life in the "living law."
legal concept of culture by the "law" and "culture" a combination of two words, which in itself implies a legal culture and culture are closely related. Human society, so they need rules, because there are social conflicts, including physical, mental, benefits and value conflicts. However, there are conflicting rules generated only motivation does not inevitably lead to the formation of the rules, only the people how to resolve conflicts ought to form a value judgment standards, rules can be formed. ○ 12 culture precisely this value judgment ought to form the basis of the standard and source in a traditional society in particular. Thus, as a rule of law will be associated with the inherent culture. Legal and cultural ties extent and had no definite rules, usually because of different type of society to another, even in the same type of society, their differences tend to be large. Generally speaking, in early society, the low level of social division, various social phenomena are intertwined, law and religion, morals, customs and witchcraft and other norms, values ??or rituals are mixed together, and there are no clear boundaries. ○ 13 For this reason, many anthropologists have to put early society, the various phenomena generally attributed to "culture" of the name, from the overall observation and reflection ○ 14. In this sense, the beginning of civil society, law and culture is almost seamless, harmony, only from a functional point of view, we can put some of the social phenomenon as a "law." Until after the election in the country before the start of this phase of modern society, with social complexity and differentiation of various elements constantly, legal phenomenon began to be separated from the culture, the relative has some characteristics of its own, the legal culture and legal systems have begun separation, the former showed ideology, the latter became structured system. At that stage, law and culture and legal systems and legal cultures sometimes clash, when a national requirement to comply with residents from different cultures when its legal system, it will be the case. However, in most cases, the law and the legal system and legal culture, and maintain close contact between cultures. Often the case that the direct effect on culture and shaping legal culture, legal culture and culture are inseparable, is often a byproduct of culture. Legal culture of the basic values ??and culture to the main spirit of the legal system to go, and shaping the system. Therefore, the legal culture is the culture of the legal system into contact with an intermediary. The legal system as an explicit normative structure, which is the product of legal culture, and, in turn, regulate the legal culture as ideology, thereby forming an interactive relationship between the two. It is in this sense, Friedman was that "culture built structure", "structural model reveals fundamental attitude," while "in turn acts on the attitude." ○ 15 In traditional societies, cultural legitimacy for the legal system to provide the basis for the legal system determines the value orientation and direction of development, and the legal system as a rule carrier forged into the value and meaning systems. Therefore, in traditional societies, the legal system is the value of legal culture carriers, and thus the value of the carrier but cultural. In the study of traditional society laws, we only have to dive into a particular culture in order to find a specific form of legal culture, meaning and value of the legal system in order to find a particular spirit, temperament and details can be found in a particular social law and non-legal boundaries (of course, depends on our "law" meaning defined). For example, when we study the traditional Chinese, Indian, Arab countries and the Middle Ages Western legal system, only respectively Confucian culture, Indian culture, Islamic culture and Christian culture, the main value of the basic spirit and depth in order to understand the legal culture the spirit and intent. Of course, this is not intended to advocate "cultural determinism" contempt economic, political and other factors, the impact of the law, but rather is intended to emphasize that in traditional societies, culture and spirit of the law of value has a strong and far-reaching impact . In yet modern, highly differentiated due to social, legal began to form an independent system, showing a tendency from the culture, the legal system is also showing a trend away from legal culture, whereby the legal system, the legal relationship between culture and the cultures occurred changed.
The semantics legal culture, context and China issues
Abstract concept of legal culture has a unique meaning, refers to the particular society is rooted in the history and culture of legal values ??and ideas. Cultural and legal culture and legal systems have established contact. Legal culture and legal culture can be divided into knowledgeable layman legal culture, the official legal culture and civil law culture, mainstream and non-mainstream legal culture legal culture, local legal culture and foreign legal culture and traditional legal culture and modern legal culture. In contemporary China in the development of the rule of law, legal culture and legal systems as well as between different legal cultures exist between conflict, we should take a new path integration of these conflicts.
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2013年07月19日 10:02:01

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